FIRST AID AND CPR
By the National Association of Underwater Instructors
Return to: Deep-Six Home Page
Click HERE to Send
E-mail to Deep-Six
Call or email (Click
HERE to Send E-mail to Deep-Six) Deep-Six to express your interest
in taking a First Aid/CPR, and/or Oxygen Administration or AED course. The cost
is $65 and the textbook is $35. The benefit is great! 845-255-7446 is the number.
The minimum class size is 4.
THE NEXT COURSE IS SCHEDULED FOR
JUNE 17, 2016 FROM 0930 TO 1730 - 9:30 AM TO 5:30
NAUI First Aid can be conducted as a comprehensive course
including all the segments (First Aid, CPR, AED, Blood-borne Pathogens and
Emergency Oxygen Administration) in a single schedule or each of the segments
may be delivered separately to meet specific needs of the students who may
only need training in one discipline or another. Certification and recognition
materials are delivered in a package with the textbook and are designed to
be flexible so that you may name some or all of the qualifications earned.
In any case the certification is valid for a two year
period after which the student must complete refresher training, and
a practical and theoretical exam.
Academic Sessions (Overview)
The academics are divided into 9 sections containing
18 units. The entire course is taught from 0930 to 1730 with a short break for
lunch. Lunch is not provided.
Unit 1: Introduction to the NAUI First Aid Course
This unit covers the value and importance of learning appropriate responses
for unexpected medical emergencies, whether related to diving, travel, or
in your home or community.
Depending on the outcome desired, this course may qualify graduates for two-year
certifications in one or all of the following first aid, CPR, AED, Emergency
Oxygen Administration, Blood-borne Pathogens.
This is a course (when taken in its entirety) that involves lifting, manikin
practice and use of disinfecting solutions. It is advisable that participants
should wear old, comfortable clothes that will not be missed if damaged during
class, especially when using hypochlorite to disinfect manikins or performing
the lifts and carries in the last unit of instruction.
Unit 2: Blood-borne Pathogens
This unit when combined with the material presented in Unit One represents
a discrete course of instruction that qualifies the graduate to receive
certification in the necessary precautions and preventing transmission of
This unit is part of the introduction section because it further explains
the precautions to follow in order to avoid disease transmission from blood-borne
pathogens while aiding a victim and that universally apply to virtually all
first aid situations.
Students should be aware that the pathogens are dangerous, but that the risks
they represent can be ameliorated by following common sense precautions.
Victim Assessment: This section introduces human anatomy as it pertains to
first aid and the relationship between immediate first aid, activating the
EMS, maintaining aid to the victim, and the eventual outcomes.
Unit 3: Victim Anatomy
This unit provides an overview of the major bodily systems and of the parts
of the body.
This unit provides a "road map" and "operating manual" of the victim.
Unit 4: Emergency Response and Victim Assessment
- Accurate needs assessment is the first step in providing effective aid,
reminding students that their initial steps are to ensure their own safety,
making sure that the scene is safe for their intervention.
- It cannot be stressed enough that first aid is only part of the necessary
response to an accident or medical emergency. A successful first aid experience
is one that stabilizes the victim, and as soon as possible transfers the injured
or ill person on to professional medical care. In a serious incident, first
aid is never enough, and delaying the transfer to professionals places the
victim into further jeopardy.
- Divers Alert Network (DAN) Emergency Number: 1-919-684-9111
Basic Life Support: In this section we explore artificial respiration (or
rescue breathing), heart disease, sudden cardiac arrest, and CPR, as well
as obstructed airway procedures or foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO).
Unit 5: Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPR is a skill, and the only way to learn any skill and to maintain proficiency
is through drill and practice.
Critical learning issues in this unit include mastering the depth and frequency
of compressions, and learning to open the airway effectively.
Unit 6: Foreign Body Airway Obstruction
This unit also distinguishes between CPR and Rescue Breathing more thoroughly
since neither is possible unless a complete airway obstruction is cleared.
Adjunct Life Support (Units 7 and 8 are optional to the First Aid/CPR course)
Unlike the previous section, this is an equipment-based
learning experience. Students will be tasked with manipulating and mastering
devices with which they are most likely unfamiliar.
Unit 7: Emergency Oxygen Administration
- Handling oxygen, especially in an emergency, entails risk. Students must
understand the precautions and safe handling procedures for oxygen, its relationship
to fire, and its potential for mishap.
- Because this is an equipment-intensive unit, plan the time for each student
to be able to assemble and disassemble an oxygen kit. Under the best circumstances,
different types of oxygen administration kits will be available.
Unit 8: Automated External Defibrillation
- Commercially available AED's include directions, and are designed to be
used by lay persons.
There will be times when the device will advise NOT to shock. Students need
to understand that the machine's sensor will help to rule out when an apparent
SCA victim is not in arrest or dangerous arrhythmia or when defibrillation
is not practicable.
Students must understand that AED usage and CPR are complementary therapeutic
interventions. Unless the victim responds positively to the AED's shock,
CPR is providing the only chance of recovery, and should be continued per
the previously covered protocols: as long as possible, or until relieved
by professional rescuers, or the victim recovers.
Bleeding and Shock
Unit 9: Bleeding
Students should use universal precautions when around blood or bodily fluids
and ensure good practice with barriers, gloves, etc. throughout your course
Going through the various types of wounds covered after pressure bandaging.
Unit 10: Shock
Shock is a term is often misused. We will cover the clinical definition.
We will stress also that different individuals will have different tolerances
for circulatory compromise.
Treating for shock is often overlooked when providing first aid.
Injuries and Wounds
Unit 11: Soft Tissue Injuries
Develop a good "bedside manner," i.e., the ability to inspire confidence,
and more importantly, cooperation from those they aid.
Bandaging practice provides an additional opportunity for students to develop
their "bedside manner."
Unit 12: Musculoskeletal Injuries
Students will be reminded that "do no harm" means that many times just keeping
victims from moving or further injury and treating them for shock may be
all that is necessary until advanced help arrives at the scene.
Generally, a splint is a temporary device used to immobilize the broken bone
and the adjacent joints.
Cold therapy (ice packs) should never be applied directly to the skin. Always
use a cloth or towel to protect the skin and prevent further injury.
Unit 13: Poisoning, stings and bites
Stings, bites, and general first aid procedures for injuries that typically
occur in the locality.
For NAUI divers the course will include the material on sea snake bites and
treatment as well as other sting and bite risks from around the world as
they are likely to travel to remote areas.
Unit 14: Other Medical Emergencies
Do not put anything in a seizure victim's mouth.
Unit 15: Burns
Stress not putting any kind of ointment or home remedy (butter, etc.) on
Heat that causes a sudden burn, e.g., scalding water or a barbecue grill,
is still penetrating to deeper layers of skin. Cold application (immersion
in cold water or under running water) as soon as is possible can prevent
further damage and worsening the degree of the burn injury.
Unit 16: Heat and Cold Issues
- Stressing the need to be prepared for changing environments whether on
land or at sea. Dressing in layers, carrying water and energy snacks are basic
precautions that everyone should follow whether on a short walk or an exotic
Heat and cold injuries will strike the ignorant and unprepared more often.
Graduates of this course will be neither.
Unit 17: Water Hazards
Stressing the statistics of drowning and how easily it can be prevented by
following the basic precautions presented.
- For non-diver trainees it isn't necessary to present the information on
scuba diving maladies. A precautionary statement regarding the need for reasonable
health and fitness is appropriate for those intrigued by the information as
well as recommendations for getting certified.
Unit 18: Moving and Transporting Victims
Stressing the principle of "do no harm." Emphasizing that transport is only
necessary to prevent further injury to the victim, to help ensure the safety
of the first aid provider, or to more effectively help a group of victims
at a nearby location. Unless absolutely necessary, give first aid where the
victim is found, and provide comfort until advanced care arrives.
It is important to maintain good posture when performing various drags, lifts
Click HERE to Send
E-mail to Deep-Six
Deep-Six Home Page
Primarily, NAUI's interest in this area of training stems
from its traditional requirement that all new member applicants be currently
certified in first aid and CPR. For many years this meant that membership
growth was dependent to an extent on a third party, i.e., American Red Cross
or St. John's Ambulance, etc. That dependence was mitigated by the reciprocity
afforded in our agreement with ASHI in 1997. Now ten years later the first
aid training market has matured and the NAUI membership has demonstrated
its ability to train and certify the general public in first aid. There is
also an overarching authority (ILCOR) producing recommendations that address
what is legitimate content in first aid courses. This, together with our
experience, makes NAUI as legitimate a source for first aid training as any
other and in the case of diver specific first aid and aquatic life injuries
even more so.
Is the NAUI first aid certification recognized
by anyone? NAUI is the authority that recognizes its certifications as legitimate
to meet the requirement for new member applicants to the Association. As
to other entities, we have made inquiries regarding recognition and will
be continuing to announce them as they come in. However, consider that in
some U.S. States the law specifies American Red Cross or American Heart
Association certification (AHA has never offered certifications in first
aid, only CPR) so there will always be some "officials" who are unwilling
to accept a certification unless it is something with which they are personally
familiar. To some extent recognition is a function of proliferation so that
the more certifications which are in circulation the more familiar and
"acceptable" they become. Also please refer to the answer above regarding
legitimacy of training. NAUI first aid materials/courses were reviewed by
medical, physiological and emergency medical experts and contain all the
Who were the experts who reviewed NAUI First Aid?
Dr. Ronald P. Bangasser, past president of the California Medical Association,
board member of the Underwater Hyperbaric Medical Society, and director of
the Wound Care Clinic at Redlands Community Hospital.
- Dr. Jolie Bookspan, research physiologist, university and military laboratory
research in human performance in normal to extreme environments (sub aquatic,
aviation, thermal, terrestrial, forensic) for acute and extended durations.
University professor of anatomy and physiology, environmental physiology,
exercise physiology, statistics, orthopedic and pain rehabilitation.
Keith Sliman, Director of Safety at Ford, Bacon and Davis, Inc., Emergency
Medical Technician, current board member and past Chairman of the National
Association of Underwater Instructors, and current board member of the Safety
Council in Baton Rouge.
Click HERE to Send
E-mail to Deep-Six
Deep-Six Home Page